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科學家破解基孔肯雅病毒入侵機制

文章來源:微生物研究所   發布時間:2019-05-10  【字號:     】  

  59日,中國科學院高福團隊在《細胞》(Cell雜志上發表了題為Molecular Basis of Arthritogenic Alphavirus Receptor MXRA8 Binding to Chikungunya Virus Envelope Protein 的文章,首次從分子水平闡釋了基孔肯雅病毒囊膜表面E蛋白與其細胞受體MXRA8分子的相互作用機制,揭示了此類病毒入侵細胞的分子機制,為抗病毒藥物開發及新型疫苗設計提供了新靶點。

  基孔肯雅熱(Chikungunya fever, CHIKF)是一種由基孔肯雅病毒(Chikungunya virusCHIKV)引起,經蚊蟲叮咬傳播的急性發熱性傳染病。該病毒病過去主要分布在非洲、南亞、東南亞熱帶和亞熱帶地區。近年來,隨著全球變暖和現代交通工具等因素,該病毒疫情呈不斷暴發和蔓延的趨勢。2005年以來疫情在東南亞和南亞地區再度暴發,2007年疫情傳播至歐洲,2013年疫情開始在加勒比海地區、美國以及南美洲等地暴發流行,造成了數百萬人感染。人感染該病毒后可致急性或慢性的外周關節痛或關節炎,嚴重時致人死亡,目前尚無特異性的治療方法和疫苗,使得該病毒引起人們的廣泛關注,也是重要的全球性公共衛生問題之一。與該病毒親緣關系較近,同樣能引起關節炎的甲病毒還包括馬亞羅病毒(Mayaro virus)、羅斯河病毒(Ross River virus)、阿尼昂尼昂病毒(O' nyong- nyong virus)等。

  病毒侵入細胞的第一步依賴于病毒囊膜蛋白與宿主受體的相互作用。過去的研究認為,CHIKV等多種致關節炎甲病毒囊膜表面含有80個三聚體形式的刺突E蛋白,每個三聚體由三個E1/E2二聚體組成其中E1蛋白參與膜融合,E2蛋白參與受體的結合。近來研究報道表明,基質重塑相關蛋白8Matrix remodeling-associated protein 8MXRA8)分子是CHIKV等多種致關節炎甲病毒的受體。MXRA8是一種在上皮細胞、髓細胞及間充質干細胞表達的黏附分子,廣泛分布于形成軟骨、肌肉和骨骼的細胞表面。但是,MXRA8分子如何介導病毒入侵卻是未解之謎。

  高福團隊深入研究了MXRA8分子介導CHIKV的入侵機制。首先,他們利用結構生物學的技術和方法解析了小鼠MXRA8mMXRA8)的晶體結構,表明MXRA8分子胞外段由兩個免疫球蛋白(Ig)樣結構域構成,但其兩個Ig樣結構域呈現獨特的拓撲結構。結構域1D1)由兩個不連續的片段構成,而結構域2D2)插在了D1的兩個片段之間,這導致D1D2之間有兩個柔性鉸鏈(Hinge loop)連接,這與以往所有報道的含有兩個Ig樣結構域的蛋白都不同。因此,他們首次提出MXRA8是一種新型的Ig樣受體分子,并具有獨特的拓撲結構及結構域間組裝形式。

  為進一步闡明CHIKV E與受體MXRA8相互作用機制,研究團隊解析了人MXRA8hMXRA8)與CHIKV E復合物的晶體結構,他們發現MXRA8CHIKV E采用一種獨特的3:3的結合模式,MXRA8結合到病毒表面三聚體刺突蛋白兩個E蛋白單體間的“峽谷”中,形成非常緊密的結合模式。其中E1E2均參與結合,MXRA8的兩個結構域及鉸鏈區均與E1E2蛋白發生相互作用。隨后他們利用冷凍電鏡技術解析了人MXRA8CHIKV病毒樣顆粒的復合物結構,證明了MXRA8在病毒表面的結合模式跟晶體結構所觀察到的結合模式一致,并通過點突變及表面等離子共振(SPR)方法對結合關鍵氨基酸進行了驗證。該研究首次“看清”了基孔肯雅病毒和受體相互作用的分子模式,為一種新型的病毒-受體結合模式,同時糾正了過去對基孔肯雅病毒和受體相互作用的一些錯誤認識。

  MXRA8因其獨特的拓撲結構排布而與其他I型跨膜蛋白不同,其ND1結構域不是遠膜端結構域,而實為近膜端結構域。在復合物結構中,MXRA8D1結構域深深地插入到CHIKV三聚體刺突E蛋白的“峽谷”中,這就需要近膜端的頸部區有足夠的長度和柔性。

  通過一系列MXRA8莖部區截短體和病毒及細胞水平功能實驗發現,MXRA8中長達48個氨基酸的莖部區為病毒入侵所必需,其足夠長且具有柔性,被病毒利用作為受體入侵細胞。

  此項研究首次揭示了致關節炎甲病毒CHIKVMXRA8受體相互作用機制,證實了MXRA8是一種具有獨特的拓撲結構及結構域間組裝形式的新型Ig樣受體分子,并發現了此類致關節炎甲病毒和受體相互作用是一種新型的病毒-受體結合模式。這些研究結果為新型疫苗及廣譜中和抗體的研發提供了理論指導,為抗病毒藥物設計提供了新靶點。

  中科院北京生命科學研究院助理研究員宋豪及微生物所碩士生趙振楠、助理研究員柴彥為論文的并列第一作者,中科院院士高福和中科院天津工業生物技術研究所副研究員高峰為論文共同通訊作者。微生物所研究員齊建勛、施一、嚴景華及巴西FIOCRUZ基金會衛生技術發展中心主任Carlos Morel給予了大力支持。該研究得到科技部重點研發計劃、中科院戰略性先導科技專項項目、國家科技重大專項、國家自然科學基金以及中科院青促會、中國科協“青年人才托舉工程”等的經費支持。

  文章鏈接

 

1. 小鼠MXRA8的三維結構

 

2. CHIKV E與人MXRA8復合物結構

 

3. MXRA8莖部區對CHIKV入侵很關鍵

 

4. CHIKV利用MXRA8入侵細胞的分子機制模型




(責任編輯:葉瑞優)

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